i put 3 12 inch props and 1 10 inch prop on my quad to just see if it would work. flew fine but with slower yaw control. with 10*45 and 10*38 being a lot more similar, dont think you would notice a difference. if you are talking about just using a whole set of 10*45 props ,or a whole set of 10*38 props, then the 10*45 would be a little more responsive to inputs wile 10*38 would be a little more "floaty "
If you're rough on the props, then yes. If your motor isn't balanced, yes. If you don't balance your props, yes.
If you take care of them, no...
Your FC board can ruin them, too.. (if not properly set-up)